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Robotic age poses ethical dilemma


An ethical code to prevent humans abusing robots, and vice versa, is being drawn up by South Korea.


The Robot Ethics Charter will cover standards for users and manufacturers and will be released later in 2007.


It is being put together by a five member team of experts that includes futurists and a science fiction writer.


The South Korean government has identified robotics as a key economic driver and is pumping millions of dollars into research.


"The government plans to set ethical guidelines concerning the roles and functions of robots as robots are expected to develop strong intelligence in the near future," the ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy said.


Ethical questions


South Korea is one of the world's most hi-tech societies.


Citizens enjoy some of the highest speed broadband connections in the world and have access to advanced mobile technology long before it hits western markets.


The government is also well known for its commitment to future technology.




    * A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.

    * A robot must obey orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.

    * A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law



A recent government report forecast that robots would routinely carry out surgery by 2018.


The Ministry of Information and Communication has also predicted that every South Korean household will have a robot by between 2015 and 2020.


In part, this is a response to the country's aging society and also an acknowledgement that the pace of development in robotics is accelerating.


The new charter is an attempt to set ground rules for this future.


"Imagine if some people treat androids as if the machines were their wives," Park Hye-Young of the ministry's robot team told the AFP news agency.


"Others may get addicted to interacting with them just as many internet users get hooked to the cyberworld."


Alien encounters


The new guidelines could reflect the three laws of robotics put forward by author Isaac Asimov in his short story Runaround in 1942, she said.


Key considerations would include ensuring human control over robots, protecting data acquired by robots and preventing illegal use.


Other bodies are also thinking about the robotic future. Last year a UK government study predicted that in the next 50 years robots could demand the same rights as human beings.


The European Robotics Research Network is also drawing up a set of guidelines on the use of robots.


This ethical roadmap has been assembled by researchers who believe that robotics will soon come under the same scrutiny as disciplines such as nuclear physics and Bioengineering.


A draft of the proposals said: "In the 21st Century humanity will coexist with the first alien intelligence we have ever come into contact with - robots.


"It will be an event rich in ethical, social and economic problems."


Their proposals are expected to be issued in Rome in April.



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Guest Invicta_Toon

bad robot!






Emotion robots learn from people


Movie I Robot depicted emotionally complex machines

Making robots that interact with people emotionally is the goal of a European project led by British scientists.


Feelix Growing is a research project involving six countries, and 25 roboticists, developmental psychologists and neuroscientists.


Co-ordinator Dr Lola Canamero said the aim was to build robots that "learn from humans and respond in a socially and emotionally appropriate manner".


The 2.3m euros scheme will last for three years.


"The human emotional world is very complex but we respond to simple cues, things we don't notice or we don't pay attention to, such as how someone moves," said Dr Canamero, who is based at the University of Hertfordshire.


Sensory input


The project involves building a series of robots that can take sensory input from the humans they are interacting with and then adapt their behaviour accordingly.


Dr Lola Canamero

The robots exhibit imprinted behaviour - following the 'mother around'


Dr Canamero likens the robots to babies that learn their behaviour from the patterns of movement and emotional state of the world around them.


The robots themselves are simple machines - and in some cases they are off-the-shelf machines. The most interesting aspect of the project is the software.


Dr Canamero said: "We will use very simple robots as the hardware, and for some of the machines we will build expressive heads ourselves.


"We are most interested in programming and developing behavioural capabilities, particularly in social and emotional interactions with humans."


The robots will learn from the feedback they receive from humans.


"It's mostly behavioural and contact feedback.


"Tactile feedback and emotional feedback through positive reinforcement, such as kind words, nice behaviour or helping the robot do something if it is stuck."


The university's partners are building different robots focusing on different emotional interactions.


'Detect expressions'


The robots will get the feedback from simple vision cameras, audio, contact sensors, and sensors that can work out the distance between the machine and the humans.



We are focusing on emotions relevant to a baby robot that has to grow and help human with every day life

Dr Lola Canamero


"One of the things we are going to use to detect expressions in faces and patterns in motion is a (artificial) neural network."


Artificial neural networks are being used because they are very useful for adapting to changing inputs - in this case detecting patterns in behaviour, voice, movement etc.


"Neural networks learn patterns from examples of observation," said Dr Canamero.


One of the areas the robots will be learning from is human movement.


"Motion tells you a lot about your emotional state.


"The physical proximity between human and robot, and the frequency of human contact - through those things we hope to detect the emotional states we need."


The robots will not be trying to detect emotional states such as disgust but rather will focus on states such as anger, happiness, loneliness; emotions which impact on how the robot should behave.


'Imprinted behaviour'


"It is very important to detect when the human user is angry and the robot has done something wrong or if the human is lonely and the robot needs to cheer him or her up.


"We are focusing on emotions relevant to a baby robot that has to grow and help human with every day life."


One of the first robots built in the project is exhibiting imprinted behaviour - which is found among birds and some mammals when born.


"They get attached to the first object they see when born.


"It is usually the mother and that's what makes them follow the mother around.


"We have a prototype of a robot that follows people around and can adapt to the way humans interact with it.


"It follows closer or further away depending on how the human feels about it."


Dr Canamero says robots that can adapt to people's behaviours are needed if the machines are to play a part in human society.


At the end of the project two robots will be built which integrate the different aspects of the machines being developed across Europe.


The other partners in this project are the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite de Cergy Pontoise, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, University of Portsmouth, Institute of Communication and Computer Systems, Greece, Entertainment Robotics, Denmark and SAS Aldebaran Robotics, France.

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